We have posted updated reviews of the following topics:Ovary > Serous tumors > High grade serous carcinoma
by Erna Forgó, M.D., Teri A. Longacre, M.D.
Topic summary: Epithelial carcinoma of serous cell lineage with papillary, glandular and solid growth patterns and high grade cytologic atypia. It is often bilateral with solid and cystic ovarian masses. The most important prognostic factor is stage, ~40% overall 5 year survival. Numerous images are provided.
Stains & molecular markers > TTF1
by Veronica Ulici, M.D., Ph.D., Li Juan Wang, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: Thyroid transcription factor 1, also known as NKX2-1. Nuclear marker with preferential expression in thyroid, lung and brain structures of diencephalic origi. There are 2 commonly used clones and a novel clone with different sensitivities and specificities for pulmonary and extrapulmonary neoplasms. Expressed in a high percentage of lung adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma but a variable percentage of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. Also CNS chordoid glioma and subependymal giant cell astrocytom.
Stomach > Polyps > Oxyntic gland adenoma
by Natalia Liu, M.D., Hanlin L. Wang, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: Benign gastric neoplasm composed of gland forming epithelial cells with predominantly chief cell differentiation resembling oxyntic gland. Occurs in areas with oxyntic mucosa, mainly in upper third of stomach. Composed of irregular glands lined by columnar cells with a predominant chief cell component, mimicking oxyntic glands. No recurrence following complete endoscopic excision. If submucosal invasion is present, should be classified as gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type.
Transfusion medicine > Transfusion reactions > Delayed hemolytic
by Matthew S. Karafin, M.D.
Topic summary: A delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction is a potentially significant adverse event caused by antibody mediated removal of recently transfused red cells due to an amnestic immune response from antibodies against an incompatible minor red blood cell antigen. Can cause an unexpected drop in hemoglobin 3 – 28 days after a transfusion and can cause clinically observed symptoms, including fever. Diagnosis is supported by a new positive direct antiglobulin test (+IgG or +IgG and C3) and the detection of an alloantibody by antibody screen / panel or elution. Future transfusions should involve red cells that are antigen negative for the detected alloantibody.