We have posted updates of the following topics:Hematology > Hemoglobinopathies > Hemoglobin C disease
by Daniel D. Mais, M.D.
Topic summary: Homozygosity for C (βC) allele of hemoglobin beta chain (HBB) gene. Diagnosed by electrophoresis or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Prevalence of hemoglobin C gene in Black Americans approximately 2%. Has poor solubility, leading to precipitation in red blood cells. No treatment required. Genetic counseling may be indicated to address risk of compound heterozygosity in offspring.
Skin nontumor > General > Histology
by Mariantonieta Tirado, M.D.
Topic summary: Largest organ of the body with a weight of approximately 5 kg and an area close to 2 m². Melanosomes: spherical membrane bound particle with periodic longitudinal concentric lamellae.
Small intestine & ampulla > Benign tumors / tumor-like conditions > Lymphangiectasia
by Gagandeep Kaur, M.D., Monika Vyas, M.D.
Topic summary: Dilated small intestinal lacteals, which may be primary or secondary. Lymphagiectasia can be primary or secondary; primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is more common in children, though in rare cases it can present in early adulthood and is usually associated with malabsorption. Primarily affects children (generally diagnosed before 3 years of age) and young adults but may be diagnosed later in adults. To date, the etiology of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is unknown.
Stomach > Infections > Helicobacter pylori
by Tanner Storozuk, M.D., Namrata Setia, M.D.
Topic summary: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is the most frequent and treatable form of gastritis, affecting more than half the world’s population. Most patients are asymptomatic or have mild self limited dyspeptic symptoms but some present with abdominal pain with or without peptic ulcer disease. More than half the world’s population is infected. Asymptomatic or mild self limited dyspeptic symptoms with transient hypochlorhydria – acute gastritis.
Transfusion medicine > Transfusion reactions > Febrile nonhemolytic
by Hanqiao (Ciao) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., Reggie Thomasson, M.S., M.D.
Topic summary: Acute reaction that occurs during or within 4 hours of cessation of blood product transfusion. Common acute transfusion reaction, roughly 0.62% of transfusions. Detect with direct antiglobulin test (DAT) / Coombs test. Due to pyrogenic / inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL1β, IL6, TNFα) released from activated leukocytes, commonly from donor during product storage. Reaction workup negative (clerical check, direct antiglobulin test, visual hemolysis inspection, ABO confirmation).