17 February 2022: Textbook Updates

We have posted updates of the following topics:

Breast > Fibrocystic changes > Fibrocystic changes
by Apeksha N. Agarwal, M.B.B.S., M.D., Daniel D. Mais, M.D.
Topic summary: Nonspecific, general term to describe a range of common and benign breast conditions, which may occur together or in isolation. Histologically benign structural alterations in epithelial and stromal elements. Common, affecting 50% of women. Nonproliferative lesions: no increased risk of breast cancer; proliferative lesions without atypia: 1.5 – 2 fold risk. Treatment: close clinical follow up of patients with high risk for breast cancer, including physical examination (every 4 – 6 months) and mammography (every 1 – 2 years) in most patients.

Informatics, digital & computational pathology > Other applications > Surgical pathology
by Syeda F. Absar, M.D., M.P.H., Jeffrey W. Prichard, D.O.
Topic summary: This topic discusses data analysis, billing and other subjects related to surgical pathology not described elsewhere in the informatics chapter. The applications of informatics in surgical pathology discussed here include collection and analysis of data for quality management applications, applications of laboratory information systems (LISs) in surgical pathology and applications for billing data in surgical pathology.

Pleura & peritoneum > Peritoneum > Mesothelial hyperplasia
by Nazim Benzerdjeb, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: Reactive proliferation of mesothelial cells with no or minimal cytologic atypia and without invasion. Common response to inflammation occurring in any process that leads to irritation of peritoneal surface. Exact incidence is unknown but mesothelial cell hyperplasia is not an uncommon phenomenon. May occur at any site of the peritoneum. Diagnosis: exploratory laparoscopy with tissue sampling; often incidentally identified in peritoneal tissue obtained for other purposes.

Prostate gland & seminal vesicles > Stromal tumors > Prostatic stromal sarcoma
by Kenneth A. Iczkowski, M.D.
Topic summary: Prostatic stromal sarcoma (PSS) is a rare entity that usually presents with urinary retention; also abnormal digital rectal examination, hematuria or hematospermia, palpable rectal mass. Cellular pleomorphism exceeds that of stromal proliferation of undetermined malignant potential (STUMP). Mean age of 54 years but ranges from 14 – 86. Low grade stromal sarcoma can invade locally, whereas high grade stromal sarcoma has the potential to metastasize. Can be managed by robotic procedure but surgery alone is inadequate.

Stains & CD markers > Glypican 3
by Nick Baniak, M.D.
Topic summary: Heparan sulfate proteoglycan on the cell surface; highly expressed in embryonic tissues but minimally expressed in normal adult tissues. Cytoplasmic or membranous staining. Oncofetal protein encoded by GPC3 gene; plays a role in the regulation of cell division and apoptosis. Mutations of the GPC3 gene are responsible for Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. Used to distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma from nonmalignant liver lesions (adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia) as part of a panel.

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