14 July 2022: Textbook Updates

We have posted updates of the following topics:

Kidney tumor > Benign adult tumors > Leiomyoma
by Alcino Pires Gama, M.D., Bonnie Choy, M.D.
Topic summary: Rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the kidney arising from smooth muscle fibers of the renal capsule, renal pelvis or vascular smooth muscle of renal vessels. Bland spindle cells in intersecting fascicles with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Higher prevalence in middle aged women. Most are asymptomatic and found incidentally. Diagnosis: histologic examination of tissue; imaging modalities are not conclusive. Excellent prognosis. Treatment: Surveillance or surgical resection depending on the tumor size, location and symptoms.

Laboratory Administration & Management of Pathology Practices > Qualifying board topics > Quality assurance > Causal analysis
by Moira P. Larsen, M.D., M.B.A., Brian H. Le, M.D., M.B.A., Suzanne Dintzis, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: Root cause analysis (RCA): a problem solving approach used to identify the principal underlying, originating (root) cause of an undesired or unintended outcome. RCA involves structured methods to study near misses and negative events. Objective / goals of RCA: to study causes of undesired pathology and laboratory outcomes and prevent future occurrences. Common techniques and methods of RCA: 5 “why’s” method, fishbone or Ishikawa diagram, cause map analysis.

Liver & intrahepatic bile ducts > Acute and chronic hepatitis > Hepatitis (acute and chronic)-general
by Maitreyi Rohit, M.B.B.S., M.S., Rifat Mannan, M.B.B.S., M.D.
Topic summary: Hepatitis can be acute or chronic. Acute hepatitis: active hepatocellular damage and necrosis caused most often due to viral infection, autoimmune disease or adverse drug reaction. Chronic hepatitis: persistent and progressive inflammation and injury of hepatocytes. Inflammatory cells along with proinflammatory cytokines can cause hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis; can induce stellate cell activation resulting in fibrosis and even progressing to cirrhosis overtime. Treatment is based on the underlying etiology.

Stains & CD markers > TRPS1
by Di (Andy) Ai, M.D., Ph.D., Qingqing Ding, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: TRPS1 (trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1) – a GATA family of zinc finger transcription factor. Involved in breast cancer carcinogenesis and required for breast cancer cell survival. Plays a critical role in the development of cartilage, bone and hair follicle; loss of the TRPS1 gene leads to trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 with defects in hair, facial and bone / joint malformations. Used to diagnose ER positive breast cancer (> 95%), HER2 positive breast cancer (> 90%), triple negative breast cancer (> 90%, including metaplastic and nonmetaplastic triple negative breast cancer).

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