We have posted updates of the following topics:
CNS nontumor > Fungal infections > Aspergillosis
by Sameen Afzal, M.B.B.S, Mohammad Khurram Minhas, M.B.B.S.
Cerebral aspergillosis is an aggressive, rare form of invasive aspergillosis characterized by brain parenchymal or meningeal invasion by Aspergillus
species; invasion of either brain parenchyma or meninges by septate, branching fungal hyphae of Aspergillus
spp. with associated inflammatory reaction. Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare disease with poor prognosis and a high fatality rate. Cerebellar and brainstem involvement is a sign of poor prognosis. Antifungal therapy with voriconazole (triazoles) as first line therapy.
Oral cavity & oropharynx > Soft tissue tumors & proliferations > Peripheral ossifying fibroma
by Timothy Fielder, M.B.B.S., B.Med.Sci., Ruta Gupta, M.D.
Reactive gingival proliferation characterized by spindle cell proliferation with calcification or ossification within gingival connective tissue. Epidemiology: Can occur at any age, reports range from 2 months to 87 years. Recurrence is more likely if offending irritant is not removed. Treatment: Surgical excision or removal of irritants including plaque / calculus or poorly fitted prosthetics. Diagnosis: Readily diagnosed histologically with high interobserver concordance.
Larynx, hypopharynx & trachea > General > Staging-hypopharynx
by Kelly Magliocca, D.D.S., M.P.H.
All carcinomas of the hypopharynx are covered by this staging system. Hypopharynx is the portion of the pharynx extending from the plane of the superior border of the hyoid bone (or floor of the vallecula) to the plane corresponding to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage. Contents include: Pyriform sinus (right and left), lateral and posterior hypopharyngeal walls, postcricoid region, extending from the level of the arytenoid cartilage and connecting folds to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage.
Prostate gland & seminal vesicles > Acinar / ductal adenocarcinomas > Ductal adenocarcinoma
by Sarah Findeis, M.D., He Huang, M.D., Ph.D.
Rare subtype of prostatic carcinoma composed of large glands lined by tall columnar cells with pseudostratified nuclei. Frequently mixed with acinar adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology: Accounts for 3.2% of all prostate cancers. Similar mortality rate to acinar carcinoma with Gleason score of 8 – 10. Treatment: Hormonal therapy, radiation or surgery; tends to have a worse outcome compared to prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma.