We have posted updates of the following topics:Adrenal gland & paraganglia > Other tumors > Adenomatoid tumor
by Katherine A. Lehman, B.S., Debra L. Zynger, M.D.
Topic summary: Rare benign nonfunctioning tumor of the adrenal gland of mesothelial origin. Proliferation of gland-like or vascular-like spaces lined by attenuated to columnar mesothelial cells. Epidemiology: age range 30 – 50 years, with peak incidence ~40 years. Thought to arise via entrapment of primitive mesenchymal cells from the Müllerian tract within the adrenal gland versus embolized mesothelial cells. Typically asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. Surgical excision or core biopsy with subsequent histopathologic evaluation necessary for diagnosis. Favorable prognosis, with no reported cases of recurrence following excision. Treatment: complete surgical resection.
Kidney nontumor > Glomerular disease > Infectious glomerulonephritis > Bacterial infection related GN
by Zhengchun Lu, M.D., Ph.D., Vanderlene Liu Kung, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: Most common bacterial infection related glomerulonephritides in countries with higher human development indices are IgA dominant infection related glomerulonephritis and infectious endocarditis associated glomerulonephritis. Most common infectious agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Immune reaction to bacterial proteins, including bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxins, ultimately result in immune complex deposition in glomeruli, inflammation, complement activation and glomerular injury. Diabetes and advanced age portend a worse prognosis. Primary treatment is antibiotic therapy targeting underlying infection.
Kidney tumor > Benign adult tumors > Hemangioma
by Bitania Wondimu, M.D., Maria Tretiakova, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: Benign vascular proliferation, rarely diagnosed in kidney (more common in skin or superficial soft tissue). M:F = 1.8:1. Often associated with end stage renal disease; can be associated with acquired cystic kidney disease, polycythemia or renal cell carcinoma. Typically asymptomatic but can present with hematuria or flank / abdominal pain. Difficult to distinguish radiographically from malignant lesions; biopsy or excision often needed for definitive diagnosis. Excellent prognosis with excision. May regress spontaneously.
Pancreas > Acinar cell lesions > Acinar cell carcinoma
by Claudio Luchini, M.D., Ph.D.
Topic summary: Malignant exocrine neoplasm of the pancreas composed of cells with morphological resemblance to acinar cells and with immunohistochemistry positive for acinar markers. M:F = 2.1:1; average age: 60 years. Pathophysiology: accumulation of genetic alteration, including chromosomal instability and frequent allelic copy number variation. The prognosis is poor, with an average survival time of about 19 months. Treatment: surgical resection if possible, gemcitabine based chemotherapy / radiofrequency ablation, molecularly based target therapy in the case of actionable alterations.